In developing the scorecard, much thought went into finding a single factor which could summarize a country's performance.
Productivity is that measure.
Because biotechnology generally produces valuable products and services, a very basic way to measure biotechnology innovation is to measure the financial gains from a country's biotechnology companies.
The focus on publicly-traded companies is for two reasons. Firstly, the reporting requirements of publicly-traded companies and the resulting transparency, relative to private firms, makes it easier to objectively compare them. Secondly, the ability to develop publicly traded companies and have them locate in a given country is also a strong indication of how favorable a climate a country provides. While starting a private biotechnology company may be as simple as registering a company name with the local government offices, the requirements for public listing are much greater.
The chart below shows the country scores for Productivity, ordered by rank and alphabetically by country name. Scroll down to the Productivity metrics for highlights of top performers in each metric.
Scores in these individual metrics are averaged to produce the overall category score shown above